What is septicemia?

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What is septicemia?

It is a generalized infection caused by a germ that spreads throughout the body. It is always a serious disease and can be fatal if untreated.

Sepsis is associated with the passage of large amounts of germs and repeated throughout the body, starting in a local infection. It takes place generally from an initial infection site (eg, abscess, urinary tract infection or pneumonia).
Many bacteria can be responsible for sepsis, the most common are staphylococci, streptococci and colon bacilli. This infection is more common and more severe in people whose immune defenses are weakened (immunocompromised), because the body does not surpass the uncontrolled multiplication of bacteria.

Causes of sepsis
According to the pattern of spread of the infection, there are three types of septicemia. The venous origin comes from an infection, untreated or poorly treated, the skin, mucous membranes or viscera. It is the most common.
The source node is from the infection of a lymph node. The diffusion of the microorganisms is effected by means of lymph. This is the case of typhoid fever.
The cardiac infection is due to a suffering heart valves (endocarditis).

Symptoms and complications of septicemia
Is high fever, persistent irregular (in needles) and peaks, which correspond to the passage of microorganisms into the blood-or unchanged (plateau) in the case of lymphatic septicemia. Soon appears a general weakening.
There may be other signs: rash, increased volume of the spleen (splenomegaly), jaundice, joint or bone pain, and respiratory signs.
The most serious complication is the emergence of infectious shock, because of the release by the germs of toxic substances (toxins) in the whole organism. After a needle fever with chills, occurs sudden drop in blood pressure (collapse), an increasingly important cooling of the feet and hands, and a bluish discoloration of the skin (cyanosis). The infectious shock (or septic) more serious is due to meningococcus (purpura fulminans).

Diagnosis of septicemia
Consists in detecting the presence of the organism in the blood, especially at peak temperature (cultivation technique of the blood or blood culture). The microorganism may also be sought in the urine, cerebrospinal fluid (obtained by lumbar puncture), and samples of all accessible infected lesions (eg., Puncture of an abscess).
The blood culture is a particular technique of blood.
It is removed and poured into several vials with nutrients that favor the proliferation of germs and permit identification. This crop of germs also to test the effectiveness of antibiotics (antibiogram). In case of persistent fever with no known cause, are made 2 or 3 blood cultures every day, to increase the chances of isolating the germ.

Treatment of sepsis
Because of the risk of complications, treatment of sepsis is conducted in the hospital.
It consists of the combination of several antibiotics, to be administered as soon as possible, at high doses by intravenous infusion for at least 15 days. It keeps up to 4-6 weeks in infectious endocarditis. Surgical removal of the source of infection not always be performed. The infectious shock requires emergency hospitalization in intensive care service.

Perfusion
The procedure for the slow injection of liquid into the blood circulation is the infusion.
The infusion into the vein, or “drop by drop” is used to provide blood or to replace or maintain body fluids in patients who can not drink or eat. Also used to make food more varied and more concentrated to a person unable to swallow normally or to administer medication. The liquid flows in a container by a thin plastic tube (catheter) that is inserted into a vein, usually in the forearm. Perfusion rate is regulated by means of a pump.

Infective Endocarditis
Infection is caused by bacteria of the inner wall of the heart (endocardial) and heart valves. It is serious because of the risk of cardiac complications. This type of infectious disease appears, usually after surgery or dental intervention, especially in people with a heart murmur by malformation or injury of a valve, or who are carriers of a prosthetic valve (mechanical valve ). Infective endocarditis is also common in drug users drugs administered unsterile syringes. Prevention in carriers of a prosthetic valve or patients suffering from a disease of the valves is to administer an antibiotic (usually penicillin) before any surgery, especially oral (dental extraction or cleaning devitalization oral). In this case, the dentist once antibiotics administered 1 hour before surgery. In other cases, the infusion treatment is started at the moment of the operation and is repeated 6 hours after hang up.

by, Plantas medicinales’

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